Everyone wants his website in top search engines organic listing. Before you optimize any website you should be aware of some basic optimization techniques.
1) Keyword Research
a) effectual keyword research
efficient keyword research is must for every Websites. Your Websites should target right keyword, otherwise it strike to visitor rate and finally affect to search engine ranking.
b) Example of effective keyword research
Suppose you have a Website that has information for car buyers about place, cost, company name, model number etc.
* So start from the basic and main idea ie buy car. Put the keyword in keyword tool and detect the mostly explored keywords.
* Prepare the sheet of famous keywords concerned to your subject. Eg Buy car, buy cars, information for car buyer. Etc.
* Make attempt to vary keyword research by considering plural keywords. Eg Car buyer, car buyers.
Thus these are the keywords about general subject of your website. Now go for webpage specific keyword research. It is more good if you make separate keyword list for every webpage other than general subject keyword list. Eg Think you wrote an article for a webpage which has info about car showrooms in Texas. For that you should try to make keyword sheet of popular and specific "Texas showroom" related keywords.
c) Rearrange the keyword list
Now by the priority of keyword relevance, global and local monthly search volume, rearrange your keyword list.
2) Some free tools for keyword research
Google's Keyword Selector Tool
Google keyword selector tool provide you to see volume of keyword searched in Google search engine including global and local volume of searched keywords. You can also sort out keyword results by relevance of keywords, competition etc.
3) Writing a keyword rich article.
When writing an article, good practice is to first write the articles naturally without stuffing keyword and then go for proper keyword stuffing on it. Extra keyword stuffing gives you penalty so be aware of that. Keyword stuffing should have proper percent of density. Normally maximum 6% density for each popular keyword in our sheet is a good practice. For better results keyword density should be between 2-6%.
4) Proper use of HTML tags
As each tag has its own importance, for better SEO you should follow some ethics. There are various tags like title, meta, Hx, bold or strong tag, alt image attribute etc. Many people make mistake that they do not write H1 heading tag. As it has much value there should be one h1 tag in every webpage. Do not write more than one h1 tag in a single webpage. There should be proper use of h2, h3, h4 tags. These tags can be used for subheadings. H1 has high importance and as number of Hx tag increases, its precedence decreases.
5) Avoid wrong keyword targeting
You can not make fool to search engines. Now a day's search engines algorithm is so optimized that, they go after your every aspect of site. So do not try any black hat technic, be clear and genuine. Eg If your page is about finance and you are trying to target cricket subject by putting keywords in Meta tags, your may get penalty by search engine and may miss from organic listing.
6) Use of XML sitemap
XML sitemap is used for search engines use. It constitutes the information about URLs present on your website, date of page modification, priority and change frequency. There are some tools which can be used for generating xml sitemap. See below link of free sitemap generator tool. So these are the prefatorial tips for better SEO.